THE CONTRAVENTIONS OF HAJJ AND WHAT EXPIATIONS ARE REQUIRED
Badna: this involves a large penalty, which means offering a cow, buffalo, camel or similar large sacrificial animal.
Dam: this involves a small penalty of a goat, sheep or one seventh of a large sacrificial animal listed above.
Sadaka: this is a donation of half a sa’ (2.2 kg) of wheat or (its equivalent in monetary value is approx £2.50)
THE OFFENCES OF HAJJ AND EXPIATIONS
- Invalidating the hajj
The only contravention that invalidates the hajj entirely is full sexual intercourse whilst in ihram before Arafat. If this occurs, one needs to complete the Hajj as normal but needs to return to do the qaza of the Hajj the following year.
- Major sacrifice (badna)
- sexual intercourse after wuqoof Arafat, but before shaving/trimming hair.
- the performance of tawaf in a state of major impurity (no badna required if performed again within its time and with ritual purity).
- Tawaaf of a woman in the state of menstruation.
- sacrifice (dam)
- To apply scent on an entire limb (within one sitting, the entire body is deemed one limb. If done over multiple sittings, multiple expiations are due- one per sitting in which an entire limb or more is scented).
- to apply oil on an entire limb(that which is scented)
- For a man to wear a stitched garment, for at least an entire day (or an entire night). (In this context the entire day is from Fajr until Maghrib, while an entire night is from maghrib until Fajr. However, what is meant here is for that equivalent length of time, so as to include for example wearing a stitched garment from midday to midnight).
- for a man to cover, a fourth or more of his head for at least an entire day (or entire night)- expiation is due even when done out of forgetfulness, ignorance or compulsion- hence even when one covers his head whilst asleep, or his head is covered by someone else, it is still deemed a violation and expiation is due. One does not incur sin, however, unless a violation is done purposefully and willingly.
- To shave a fourth or more of one’s head (or beard).
- To shave one or both armpits.
- To shave one’s private parts.
- To clip all of one’s nails in one sitting (so of both hands and both feet). – so, one dam is necessary. If cut over different sittings, then dam for each fully cut limb Is required.
- To leave performing the sa’ee.
- To omit all of the stoning or that of one day.
- To delay the act of shaving/trimming the head past its appropriate time (from fajr the 10th dhul-hijjah – Maghrib of the 12th of dhul-hijjah).
- To delay the tawaf-e-ziyarah past its appropriate time (from fajr the 10th dhul-hijjah – Maghrib of the 12th of dhul-hijjah).
- To delay the standing of Arafat past its day and if instead performed at night(it is still valid until the fajr of the 10th, yet the wajib of performing it between zohr and maghrib was missed.
- committing acts that are motivators of sexual intercourse (such as embracing, kissing, and touching with lust).
- to leave the performing of Tawaaf-e-wadaah.
- hair falling off itself will not require any expiation
- if the pilgrim applies scent, wears a stitched garment, or shaves (or trims) his hair with a valid excuse, he may choose between:
- sacrificing a sheep (this has to be done within the haram and not valid elsewhere).
- donating 3 sa’s (13.2 kg) of wheat (or its equivalent in monetary value) to six poor people (this is not specific to any place).
- Or fasting 3 days. (this is not specific to any place and does not have to be done altogether.
- to apply scent less than an entire limb.
- for a man to cover one’s head for less than an entire day (or night).
- for a man to wear a stitched garment for less than an entire day (or night).
- to shave less than a fourth of one’s head (or beard).
- to shave someone else’s head (or trim his hair or cut his nails).
- to perform either the tawaf-e-qudoom or the tawaf-e-waddah in a state of minor ritual impurity.
- for each round missed of the tawaaf-e-wadaah – upto 3 rounds (for missing four or more rounds- a dam will apply).
- For each nail clipped (if 5 nails are cut on a limb, then dam will be required).
- If one kills more than 3 lice, or more than 3 locusts from his body (less than this there is no fixed amount of sadka- but one must donate money and he can choose to donate how much he wants).
- For each pebble missed, if less than an entire days stoning.