Beliefs in Allah (The Exalted)

Chapter One

 

Beliefs Regarding Allah (The Exalted)

 A.1 Belief: Allah (The Exalted) is One. He has no partner in Being, attributes, actions, commands or in Names. Allah (The Exalted) is “Waajibul Wajood” (His existence is necessary). His non‑existence is absolutely impossible (Muhaal). Allah (The Exalted) is Qadeem (always was, always will be; not a creation). Another name for this is Azali or Abadi. It is Allah (The Exalted) alone who is worthy of worship.

A.2 Belief:  Allah (The Exalted) is free from need, in other words Allah (The Exalted) is not dependant on anyone or anything rather the entire creation is dependant on Allah (The Exalted).

There are those, who think (Allah forbid) that  Allah (The Exalted) created Angels etc. to do certain chores, so these mean that Allah (The Exalted) is dependant on them to do these chores. This is totally incorrect.  Allah (The Exalted) created the Angels as His servants and gave them opportunity to serve Him as their Lord. It is the Angels and all the creation that are dependant on Allah (The Exalted) and Allah (The Exalted) is without doubt dependant on none.

A.3 Belief: To understand Allah (The Exalted’s) Being (Zaat) by means of reason is absolutely impossible. That which can be understood by means of reason, can be comprehended and encircled by the mind and there is nothing that can encircle or comprehend Allah (The Exalted’s) Being. However, through Allah (The Exalted’s) Works (Af‘aal), His attributes can be identified and through His attributes, one is able to attain knowledge about the Being of Allah (The Exalted).

The above mentioned belief explains that it is absolutely impossible for us to comprehend Allah (The Exalted’s) Being. The reason for this is that anything which can be understood can be comprehended, but for the sake of understanding, an example without comparison is that if one thinks of a bird, then one’s mind can comprehend a bird’s physique and one will thus be able to imagine or picture a bird. The reason for this is because it is tangible which the mind can understand through reasoning and knowledge. Now, none can imagine or picture Allah (The Exalted). Thus, the human mind can not comprehend Allah (The Exalted’s) Being as it is beyond the understanding of the creation. However, it has been explained that through the Attributes of Allah (The Exalted), such as His Mercy, His Wrath etc. we are able to know about  Allah (The Exalted) and His commands.

A.4 Belief: Just as His Being is Qadeem, Azali and Abdi (all these terms mean non‑created always was, always will be); His attributes are also Qadeem, Azali and Abadi.

It must be understood that Allah (The Exalted) is Self Existent. Allah (The Exalted) is “All Existing” in other words not created, always was and always will be.

A.5 Belief: With the exception of Allah (The Exalted’s) Being and Attributes (such as Allah) being Most Merciful, The Sustainer etc. everything else is “Haadis” meaning that it did not exist and only came into existence after Allah (The Exalted) created them. In other words the Angels, Prophets, Jinns, humans and everything else in the universe only came into existence after being created by Allah (The Exalted), so they are all known as “Creation”. In other words, all creation came into existence through Allah (The Exalted’s) command.

A.6 Belief: Any person who says the attributes of Allah (The Exalted) to be a creation is a mislead and corrupt person.

  1. 7 Belief: Any person who says anything in the universe to be Qadeem (uncreated) or has a doubt in it being Haadis (created) is an unbeliever (Kaafir).

 

  1. 8 Belief: His Attributes are neither the same nor separate from his Being. It is not so, that the attributes are the Names alone of His Being (Zaat). In reality His attributes can not be separated from Allah (The Exalted’s) Being.

 

  1. 9 Belief: Allah (The Exalted) has Power over everything that is possible. There is nothing possible which is outside His Power. In the same way, anything that is totally impossible is not within His Power. Anything which is absolutely impossible has no connection to Allah (The Exalted), as He is free from this. An example of this is that there can never be another Allah. The non‑existence of another Allah (The Exalted) is absolutely impossible over which Allah (The Exalted) has no Power or command. In the same way, the destruction of Allah (The Exalted) is absolutely impossible and has no connection to Him. It is thus very evident neither are those things which are absolutely impossible connected to Him and nor does Allah (The Exalted) have any Power (command) over them. Thus, it has been proven that to accept any Muhaal (absolutely impossible) to be within Allah (The Exalted’s) power, is to, in reality reject the oneness of Allah (The Exalted).

 

  1. 10 Belief: Allah (The Exalted) is not a father of anyone, nor is he a son of anyone, nor does he have any wife. Anyone who claims that Allah (The Exalted) is the father or son of anyone, or says that Allah (The Exalted) has a wife is an unbeliever. Even, if one thinks of these to be possible, then he is mislead.

Today the Christians and even some Muslims (Allah Forbid) refer to humans as the children of god. This is totally improper and words of Kufr. Muslims must abstain from making such detrimental statements.

 

A.11 Belief:  Allah (The Exalted) is “Hayy” in other words Allah (The Exalted) is All Existing and the lives of everything is in His control. He gives life to whomsoever He wills and causes death to whomsoever He wills.

 

  1. 12 Belief: He is Qaadir (has power) over everything that is possible. There is nothing possible that is out of his Power.

 

  1. 13 Belief: Maqdoor refers to those things which are within Allah (The Exalted’s) Power. It is not necessary that any or all things have to come to existence. However, only those things that are possible are Maqdoor. Muhaal or absolutely impossible things are not Maqdoor.

An example of this, is that if Allah (The Exalted) wills then a He can create a Mountain of gold or make the skies of rubies, but this is not so. It therefore does not mean that it must be in existence. It is His will that He brings into existence whatever He wills.

 

  1. 14 Belief: Allah (The Exalted) is All Splendid and Most Graceful. He is free from all that which has shortage or defect. It is absolutely impossible for there to be any shortages or defects in Allah (The Exalted). Allah (The Exalted) is even free from that which has neither shortage nor splendour. Allah (The Exalted) is free from all defects, such as lies, deceit, distrust, tyranny, ignorance, immodesty etc. To say that lies is within his power in this sense, that he can tell a lie, is to say a Muhaal (absolutely impossible) to be Mumkin (possible), and to say Allah (The Exalted) to have defect and this would be rejecting Allah (The Exalted). To think that Allah (The Exalted’s) power has a shortage if He does not have Power over a Muhaal, (absolutely impossible thing) is totally incorrect. It is not a shortage in the power of Allah (The Exalted). In reality, it is the weakness and shortage of that Muhaal, that it is not worthy of having connection with the power of Allah (The Exalted).

 

  1. 15 Belief: Existence, Power, Hearing, Seeing, Speech, Knowledge and Will are all His Self Attributes, but He does not depend on ears, eyes and tongue to hear, see or speak, since these are all physical forms (body) and Allah (The Exalted) is free from any physical form. He hears the faintest of sounds and sees the most minute of things, even that which can not be seen under the lenses of a microscope. His seeing and hearing, is not only confined to this, but He is all Seeing and All Hearing. We thus say that Allah (The Exalted) sees absolutely and hears absolutely.

 

  1. 16 Belief: Like all His other Attributes, His Words ‑ Speech is also uncreated. It is not a creation. The Qur’aan is Allah (The Exalted’s) words. Any person who says the Qur’aan to be a creation has been termed a Kaafir, by Imam Aazam Abu Hanifa (may Allah be pleased with him) and all the other Great Imams. Actually, the kufr (infidelity) of such a person is proven from the companions (may Allah be pleased with them).

 

  1. 17 Belief: His speech is free from sound. The Qur’aan that we recite with our tongue and which we read from written form is the uncreated words of Allah (The Exalted) without any sound. Our reading, writing and our voices are a creation. In other words, our recitation is creation and that which we have recited is uncreated. Our writing is created and that which we have written is uncreated. Our listening is creation and that which we have heard is uncreated. Our memorising is creation and that which we have memorised is uncreated.

 

  1. 18 Belief: Allah (The Exalted’s) Knowledge surrounds everything, whether it is in full, or partial, or be it present, possible, totally impossible. In other words He knew of everything always (Azali) and still knows of everything and always knows everything forever. Things may change, but His Knowledge does not change. He is aware of the fears and whispering of the hearts. There is no limit to his knowledge.

 

  1. 19 Belief: He knows everything apparent and hidden. Ilm‑e‑Zaati (self knowledge) is His unique attribute. Any person, who tries to prove Ilm‑e‑Zaati, be it of present or hidden for any but Allah (The Exalted) is an unbeliever. Ilm‑e‑Zaati means Allah (The Exalted’s) self knowledge, which is unattainable and uncreated.

 

  1. 20 Belief: He is the Creator of everything. Be it beings or actions. Everything that has been created has been created by Allah (The Exalted).

 

  1. 21 Belief: In reality, it is Allah (The Exalted) who sends down sustenance. The Angels etc. are only means and channels of delivering the sustenance etc.

 

  1. 22 Belief: As per His Knowledge, He has written all good and bad as they are to happen and as it was to be done. It is not so, that we have to do as He has written, but He has written as we were to do. Thus If Allah (The Exalted) wrote bad for a certain person, then it was because that person was to do bad. If he was to do good, then Allah (The Exalted) would have written that good for him. His writing did not force any person to do anything. This is known as destiny.

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) has said that one who rejects destiny is like the fire worshippers in this nation.

Here the issue of destiny is being discussed. Many people commit sins and say that it is because it is in their destiny and because Allah (The Exalted) has written it to be so. This is incorrect. Allah (The Exalted) with His self knowledge knew that they were going to sin, so He wrote that which they were to do. It is not so that His writing has forced them to sin. An Example without comparison is being present for the purpose of understanding. A five year old boy stands in front of a bus. He says to his brother, ‘I am going to pick up this bus.’ His brother says, ‘You will not pick it up.’ The boy tries, but he does not pick it up.

 The brother knew that the boy would not pick up it, thus, because of his knowing this, he said that the boy would not be able to pick up the bus. Was the boy unable to pick up the bus because his brother said that he would not be able to do so?

You can now realise that whatever we will do, Allah (The Exalted) has knowledge of it. Allah (The Exalted) recorded this knowledge on the sacred Tablet and this is destiny.

 

  1. 23 Belief: Fate is of three types

(a). Mubram‑e‑Haqeeqi refers to inevitable fate and is not changeable.

(b) Mu‘allaq Mahz refers to that which is evidently pending the books of the Angels and can be changed.

(c) Mu‘allaq Shabi Ba Mubram refers to that which is not evidently shown to be pending in the books of the Angels, but it is in the Knowledge of Allah (The Exalted), that it is a pending situation (can be changed for example through the duas of Allah (The Exalted’s) chosen servants).

 

Mubram‑e‑Haqeeqi can not be changed. If the Pious servants of Allah (The Exalted) intend to intercede in these issues, then their thoughts are diverted from such issues. When the Angels descended upon the nation of Nabi Lut (upon whom be peace) with punishment, Nabi Ibraheem (upon whom be peace) who was very merciful, as even his name Ibraheem (upon whom be peace) means ‘merciful father’, began to present the case of these infidels in the Court of Allah (The Exalted). Allah (The Exalted) says, “He began to protest with us about the nation of Lut” In this verse, the Qur’aan has refuted those irreligious people who say that the Most Pious servants of Allah (The Exalted) have no say in His Exalted Court. In this verse,  Allah (The Exalted) refutes their false beliefs by showing that they verily have great right to be heard in His Court, for He says that Nabi Ibraheem (upon whom be peace) began to protest about the nation of Nabi Lut (upon whom be peace). It is in the Hadith that on the night of Me’raaj, the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) heard the voice of someone speaking in a very loud and audible manner to Allah (The Exalted). The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) asked Jibraeel (upon whom be peace) about who this was and he replied that it was Nabi Moosa (upon whom be peace). The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Does he speak to his Rabb in such a high pitched voice?” and Jibraeel (upon whom be peace) said, “His Rabb is aware of his intense nature.” When  Allah (The Exalted) revealed the verse, “Verily it is near that Your Lord may give you so abundantly that you shall be pleased (satisfied)”, the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “I will not be pleased if even one of my followers remains in the fire of Hell.” It is stated in the Hadith concerning a child of miscarriage, that on the day of Judgement the child will demand for the forgiveness of his parents with Allah (The Exalted) in such a way that a creditor demands from one who owes him, until Allah (The Exalted) will say, “O child of miscarriage! O you who is demanding (quarrelling) with his Lord! Take your parents by the hand and lead them into Paradise.

 

Allah (The Exalted) addressed Nabi Ibraheem (upon whom be peace) by saying, “O Ibraheem! Do not enter this thought, for verily the punishment is to descend upon them.” This is an example of Mubram‑e‑Haqeeqi.

 

Mu‘allaq items refer to those items of destiny which can be reached by most Awliyah Allah. Through their du’as and through their striving, it can be alleviated. It is concerning this that Ghaus‑e‑Aazam Shaykh ‘Abdul Qadir Jilani (may Allah be pleased with him) says, “I can cause Qaza‑e‑Mubram to be alleviated.” It is in the Hadith, “Verily Dua alleviates Qaza‑e‑Mubram”.

 

Rule: The issues relating to fate can not be understood by ordinary minds. To go too deep into trying to understand this can lead to destruction. ‘Abu Bakr Siddique and ‘Umar Farouk (may Allah be pleased with them) were even asked not to discuss this issue at length. All that one needs to know is that Allah (The Exalted) did not create us like stones and other lifeless objects. We have been given the ability of deciding whether to do a certain thing or not. With this ability, we have also been blessed with intelligence, that we may differentiate between right and wrong, benefit and loss. We have also been blessed with all the necessary means to do what we need to and it is for this, that we are answerable. To think that you are totally powerless or completely powerful, are both deviation from the true path.

 

Rule: To do evil and to attribute it to fate or to attribute it to the Will of Allah (The Exalted) is an improper theory. The law is this, that when you do any good, say that it is from Allah (The Exalted) and if you do any bad, attribute it towards your evil desires (nafs).

 

  1. 24 Belief: Allah (The Exalted) is free from shape, size, space, direction, time and all that which is created.

 

  1. 25 Belief: To see Allah (The Exalted) in one’s worldly life is only unique to the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and in the hereafter it is not only possible, but a reality for every Sunni Muslim. As for the issue of seeing spiritually or in a dream, then this was bestowed upon various Prophets (upon them all be peace) and also certain Awliyah Allah. Imam Aazam Abu Hanifa (may Allah be pleased with him) saw Allah (The Exalted) in his dream one hundred times.

 

  1. 26 Belief: When seeing Allah (The Exalted), it is without exhilaration, in other words one who sees will not be able to describe what he saw. When a person usually sees anything or anyone then he sees from either far or near, above or below, from the left or right or from front or behind, but the seeing of Allah (The Exalted) is free from all these. It is usually asked how and why this will happen? The answer to this is that there is no place for such a question in this issue. When we see then we will be able to answer this question. The crux of all this, is that if the intellect engulfs it then it is not Allah (The Exalted), for the mind can not engulf Allah (The Exalted). It is also absolutely impossible, that the eyes will encircle Allah (The Exalted) when seeing him.

 

  1. 27 Belief: Allah (The Exalted) does what and as He Wills, for there is none with control over Him and there is none that can stop Him from doing that which He Wills. He neither gets drowsy nor does He sleep. He is the one who sees the entire creation and never tires. He is the Sustainer. He is more Merciful than one’s father or mother. He is the Compassionate. His Mercy is the hope of broken hearts. Excellence and Exaltedness is for Him alone. He creates the form of a child in the mother’s womb as He Wills. He is the One who is most forgiving. He is the one who accepts repentance. He is the one who shows His wrath. His hold is the most powerful. None can be freed from His hold without His Will. If He wills, he cause something little to become vast and something vast to become little. He makes big whom He Wills and makes small whom He Wills. He may give respect to one who is disgraced and cause disgrace to one who is respected. He guides whom He Wills on the right path and removes whom He Wills from the right path. He grants closeness to whom He Wills and allows whom He Wills to become cursed. He gives to whom He Wills and seizes from whom He Wills.

Whatever He does or will do is Just (Allah is Supreme and Just). He is free from tyranny. He is the most Exalted and the Magnificent. He encircles everything and there is nothing that can encircle him. To give benefit and loss is in His Power. He answers the call of the oppressed and brings the oppressors to justice. Nothing occurs without His Will, but He is pleased when one does good and He is displeased when one does bad. It is his Mercy that He does not command us to do that which is out of our means. It is not compulsory upon Allah (The Exalted) to reward, punish, show happiness or do what is best for a person. He does as He Wills and commands whatever He Wills. It is His grace that He has promised Paradise to the believers and through His Justice, Hell to the infidels, and his promises do not change. He has promised that with the exception of Kufr (disbelief), he may forgive all major and minor sins, as He Wills.

 

  1. 28 Belief: His Works are full of wisdom, whether we know of them or not. He does not need a reason to do anything. A reason is that which causes benefit to the one commanding any action (and Allah is free from this). His doings do not depend on justification or excuse to do anything which He Wills. Through His Wisdom, He has made one thing the means for another. He has created eyes for seeing, ears to hear, fire to burn and water to quench thirst. If He Wills, then the eyes may hear, the ears may see, fire may burn and water may quench thirst. If He does not will, then in the day, a thousand eyes may not see a mountain, there may be a million fires and one straw may not even be tarnished.

  What a powerful fire was that in which the kaafirs threw Nabi Ibraheem (upon whom be peace) into? None could even go close to it. He was catapulted into the fire. When he came into contact with the fire, then Jibraeel (upon whom be peace) descended and said, “O Ibraheem! Do you have any request? He replied, “I do, but not from you.” Jibraeel (upon whom be peace) said, “Then ask from him from whom you have need.” He replied, “He knows best what my need is.” Then Allah (The Exalted) commanded, “O Fire! Become cool and peaceful upon Ibraheem.” On hearing this command of Allah (The Exalted), all the fires on earth became cool, each thinking that the command was for it. The Great scholars have stated that the fire became so cold, that if the word peaceful had not been used, then it would have become so cold, that it could have caused harm.

 

Important Note:

There are different words that are used in this text such as ‘Takfeer’ which means it is without any doubt what-so-ever clear Kufr and one will be out of the folds of Islam.

The term ‘is a Kafir,’ ‘will be Kufr,’ ‘are words/statement of Kufr’ and ‘is Kufr’ are similar, however, depending on the (Urf) custom of the time or environment in the community it could have different meaning, hence, the Fatwa of Kufr will not be given. This can only be done by a qualified Mufti.

These statements are real examples of Kufr that have been said by people from the time of the great jurists over 1000 years ago till today and not made up. All the references have been provided from books of these great jurist.

 

 

Words of Kufr in regards to the Being of Allah (The Exalted)

 

  1. Whosoever attributes to Allah (The Exalted) that which does not befit His dignity or jokes about any of His names or His commands or rejects His promise or punishment, such a person will be a Kafir.[1] (Takfeer will be done). [i] 
  1. If someone claimed that Allah (The Exalted) eats, drinks, sleeps and gets tired, or associates, brings about anything that brings weakness, degrades, take fault in the Being of Allah (The Exalted) that does not befit His dignity is Kufr. 
  1. To say “Allah (The Exalted) has taken Daizfam 80[2] and gone to sleep,” is Kufr. 
  1. To swear to Allah (The Exalted) in seriousness, as a joke, in happiness or in anger is Kufr. 
  1. To say “Make supplication in the morning as Allah (The Exalted) is free at this time,” is kufr. 
  1. If a person keeps mentioning Allah (The Exalted), and another person said to him, ‘Is He (Allah) your uncle?’ The person who says this will become a Kafir. [ii] 
  1. To say “Do not perform so many good deeds that Allah’s reward decreases,” is kufr. 
  1. When it thunders some say “Allah (The Exalted) is roaring (shouting),” this is kufr. 
  1. “Love is such that even Allah (The Exalted) is astonished,” are words of kufr. 
  1. “Allah (The Exalted) is also distressed with such a person’s actions,” or saying “by creating such a person Allah (The Exalted) is also distressed,” are words of Kufr. 
  1. To say “Allah (The Exalted) made your hair with great leisure,” are words of Kufr. 
  1. To say “Such a person lives behind Allah (The Exalted),” are words of kufr. 
  1. To call Allah (The Exalted) a creation, forgetful, to reject being a servant of Allah (The Exalted), to deny Allah (The Exalted) is kufr. [iii] 
  1. If someone claims that prostrating to Allah (The Exalted), is degrading and disrespect of a pious person and does not befit the dignity of a pious person, such a person is a Kafir. 
  1. “If Allah (The Exalted) is disappointed then be so,” or saying “If the Lord is crying let Him, my beloved would not cry,” these terms are used commonly in songs, people play and listen to these with pleasure, the command of kufr is upon all. 
  1. If a person never falls ill or is very old and is not dying, then to say “Allah (The Exalted) has forgotten such a person,” is kufr. [iv] 
  1. If someone believes that Allah (The Exalted) can make mistakes, is forgetful or to find/make a fault is a Kafir. 
  1. To say Allah (The Exalted) makes mistakes or forgets or has a fault is kufr. 
  1. “When will I be called, may be the creator has forgotten,” is kufr.
  1. “Maybe Allah (The Exalted) has forgotten to write anything in my destiny,” these are words of kufr.
  1. Zaid said, “It is possible it rains today,” Bakr said, “No mate, Allah (The Exalted) has forgotten us,” is also kufr.
  1. Someone said, “Fear Allah (The Exalted),” the other said, “Where is Allah (The Exalted)?” are words of kufr. [v] To reject the existence of Allah (The Exalted) or to have doubt is kufr.
  1. “If there was an Allah (The Exalted), He would definitely listen to my supplication,” the one who says this is a Kafir.
  1. “If there really was an Allah (The Exalted), He would assist the poor, assist the needy,” one who says this is a Kafir.
  1. To believe that Allah (The Exalted) can enter into objects is kufr. [vi]
  1. To accuse Allah (The Exalted) is kufr, hence, if someone says, “I don’t know why Allah (The Exalted) has mentioned this thing in the Qur’aan?” such person is a Kafir. [vii]

Note: To say all the following words accusing Allah (The Exalted) is kufr. 

  1. To say, “Allah (The Exalted) has kept the Fajr Salaah too early,” is kufr.
  1. “At times when I do something with somebody Allah (The Exalted) straightaway catches me out,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “If someone does anything with another, that person has full freedom from Allah (The Exalted),” these are words of kufr.
  1. “If I do something minor with someone, Allah (The Exalted) straightaway catches me,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “Allah (The Exalted) has always given hand to my enemies,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “I have seen, every time I have left everything with Allah (The Exalted) nothing happens,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “Allah (The Exalted) has not made my fate good the slightest upto now,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “Maybe in His treasures there is nothing in my name, my worldly desires have never been fulfilled, throughout my life non of my supplications have been accepted, whoever I wanted has gone further away, every dream has broken, all wishes are trodden over, now tell me, how shall I bring faith in Allah (The Exalted)?” these are words of kufr.
  1. “How can I believe He (Allah) listens?” these are words of kufr.
  1. “Till today He has not accepted any of my supplications,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “A person has made my life a misery and the funny thing is even Allah (The Exalted) is with such people,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “That person has no fear of Allah (The Exalted) because Allah (The Exalted) Himself is with him. That go son Muhammad-Iqrar, go and unveil peoples sisters and falsely accuse them (of committing unlawful) I am with you.    
  1. “But Allah (The Exalted) on every step has proven that I don’t help the needy and poor,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “Truly if Allah (The Exalted) assisted the poor then people like Iqrar[3] would have served their punishment,” these are words of kufr. 
  1. “Whatever he has done to us, Allah (The Exalted) Himself stands and watches our performance,” these are words of kufr.
  1. Whoso says, “I don’t know, when Allah (The Exalted) has not given me anything in the world, why did He make me?” this is kufr. [viii]
  1. To say by means of accusation, “I don’t know why Allah (The Exalted) created such a person?” is Kufr. [ix]
  1. “Creator of the world, what did You have in mind when making this world,” are words of Kufr.
  1. If someone in difficulty said, “O Allah (The Exalted) You have taken wealth, have taken such a thing, what will You do next?” or “What do You want next?” or “What is left now?” these sayings are Kufr. [x]
  1. If a beggar upon seeing his hardship says, “O Allah (The Exalted) such a person is also Your servant, you have given him so many gifts and I am also Your servant but You give me so much distress and difficulties, what kind of justice is this?” To say this is kufr. [xi]
  1. “You say that Allah (The Exalted) is with those who are patient, I say this is all rubbish,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “Those whom I love live in distress and those who are my enemies, Allah (The Exalted) keeps them pleased,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “Your Allah (The Exalted) has not shown anything to that person,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “All the system of the house of Allah (The Exalted) is upside down,” these are words of kufr.
  1. “Allah (The Exalted) helps the deceivers and cheaters Himself,” these are words of kufr.
  1. Whoso says, “If Allah (The Exalted) punishes me after my illness and the affliction of my son, He has oppressed me,” is a Kafir. [xii]
  1. If someone accuses Allah (The Exalted) in the state of illness, needy or an increase in difficulty, for instance to say, “O my Lord! Why do You oppress me? I have not committed any sin,” such a person is a Kafir.
  1. Whoso says, “O Allah (The Exalted) give me sustenance and do not oppress me by putting me in need,” such a person is a Kafir.” [xiii]
  1. To associate oppression to Allah (The Exalted), to call Him an oppressor is kufr. [xiv]
  1. “Allah (The Exalted) has always supported bad people,” are words of kufr.
  1. “Allah (The Exalted) has made the incapable more distressed,” are words of kufr.
  1. On hearing something astonishing saying, “The oppression is of Allah’s (The Exalted),” are words of kufr.
  1. A person dies, someone said, “Allah (The Exalted) should have not done that,” this is kufr.
  1. Whoso associates oppression to Allah (The Exalted) (for instance someone’s son had died or a great calamity and said, “Allah (The Exalted) has done great injustice” or “Allah (The Exalted) should have not done that,”) such a person has become a Kafir.
  1. Whoso says, “Allah (The Exalted) has done something without wisdom,” is a Kafir. [xv]
  1. “This command of Allah (The Exalted) is a waste from beginning,” are words of kufr.
  1. “There is unreasonable difficulty in the commands of Allah (The Exalted),” are words of kufr. 
  1. It is said to someone, “Such a person is not doing right to you,” the person said, “Even Allah (The Exalted) is not doing good to me,” these are words of kufr. [xvi]
  1. Someone seeing a bad/ugly animal said, “Allah (The Exalted) did not have anything else to do than creating an animal like this,” are words of kufr. [xvii]
  1. Whoso says, “I only worship to attain paradise and be saved from hell, if it wasn’t for this, I would not worship Allah (The Exalted),” such a person is a Kafir. [xviii]
  1. Whosoever binds a lie to Allah (The Exalted) or believes it as permissible, is kufr. [4] 
  1. Whosoever says, “Allah (The Exalted) knows that I haven’t done this,” however, he has, then there is the order of kufr. [xix]
  1. To say, “Allah (The Exalted) knows that I always remember you in my supplications,” however, he doesn’t, then there is the order of kufr. [xx]
  1. Zaid complains about ‘Umar in front of Bakr saying, “Allah (The Exalted) knows I am not complaining,” these are words of kufr.
  1. To say, “Allah (The Exalted) knows that you love me more than such a person or everyone,” but this is not the case, then this is kufr.
  1. If someone says, “I love you so much, Allah (The Exalted) is witness,” however, if it is not the case then this is kufr. We find from this that to associate a lie to Allah (The Exalted) is kufr.
  1. Whosoever says, “I take an oath by the soil under the feet of Allah (The Exalted) and your feet,” this is kufr. [xxi]
  1. One who calls anyone other than Allah (The Exalted) “O deity” or “O my deity” is a Kafir. [xxii]
  1. To prostate with the intention of worship to anyone except Allah (The Exalted) is kufr. [xxiii] To prostrate to an idol not for worship only respect, the jurist has said it is kufr.
  1. To worship Holi and Diwali [5] is kufr. [xxiv] Even if it is in a joke, as kufr in general will be kufr in joking too. Even to go to worship the Holi or Diwali to please Hindus is kufr.
  1. Whoso believes ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) as Allah is a Kafir. [xxv] The same ruling applies on those who believe anyone/thing other than Allah (The Exalted) as God. A sect within the Shias believe ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) as Allah, (Allah forbid).
  1. To call Allah (The Exalted) Raam[6] is Kufr. [xxvi]
  1. Whosoever with the intention of being cured worships other than Allah (The Exalted) is a Kafir and one who believes it as permissible is also a Kafir. [xxvii]
  1. A person who calls his/her Shaykh (Peer) Allah or Messenger is a Kafir. [xxviii]
  1. To say Allah (The Exalted) has a part in everything and everything is Allah (The Exalted) are words of Kufr. [xxix] For further details see Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Volume 6.
  1. To call Zaid, ‘Umar and everyone else Allah (The Exalted) is Kufr as the ignorant hermits say. [xxx]
  1. Who so says ‘Isa (upon whom be peace) is the son of God is a Kafir. [xxxi]
  1. To say the Angels are the daughters of Allah (The Exalted) is Kufr.
  1. If someone said regarding the dead “O people! Allah (The Exalted) is more in need of them than you,” is kufr. [xxxii]
  1. To say that Allah (The Exalted) is in need of something or a being, is Kufr.
  1. If someone’s son has passed away, the person said, Allah (The Exalted) wanted him, this is Kufr, as such a person has said Allah (The Exalted) is in need. [xxxiii]
  1. Whoso said, “If Allah (The Exalted) orders me to go to paradise with such a person I will not go,” is a Kafir. [xxxiv]
  1. If one said to another, “Even if Allah (The Exalted) mediates for you then, I will not accept His mediation,” is a Kafir.
  1. If it is said, “If Allah (The Exalted) gives me paradise without such a person I will not go,” or “If Allah (The Exalted) gives me paradise due to such a person or such a deed then I will not go to paradise,” there is the order of Kufr. [xxxv]
  1. Someone said, “What else can Allah (The Exalted) do besides sending to Hell?” this statement is Kufr. [xxxvi]
  1. It is said, “Even if Allah (The Exalted) ordered me to do this I would still not do it,” is a Kafir. [xxxvii]
  1. To say, “If on the Day of Judgement Allah (The Exalted) judges with justice then I will take my right from you,” this statement is Kufr as there is a doubt that Allah (The Exalted) will judge with justice. [xxxviii]
  1. To say “Even if Allah (The Exalted) orders me to do this I will not listen,” are words of Kufr. [xxxix]
  1. Two people were fighting, someone said, make up, another said, even if Allah (The Exalted) says I will not, are words of Kufr.
  1. One said to another let’s both work according to the command of Allah (The Exalted), the other said, I do not know the commands of Allah (The Exalted), or said, no ones’ commands work here, is a Kafir. [xl]
  1. To say “Not even Allah (The Exalted) will save you from my oppression,” is Kufr.
  1. To say with the intention of rejection “What can Allah (The Exalted) do?” or “What else can Allah (The Exalted) do, put us in Hell?” the order will be of Kufr. [xli]
  1. If someone was told “Do you not fear Allah (The Exalted)?” the person said, “No” there is the order of Kufr. [xlii]
  1. A person who talks a lot was told, Allah (The Exalted) can not compete with your tongue, how can I? To say this is Kufr. [xliii] 
  1. A person said to another, why don’t you keep your woman under control? The other said, Allah (The Exalted) has the power over women, how can I? This statement is Kufr. [xliv]
  1. Such a person is so smart that he has even deceived Allah (The Exalted), these are words of Kufr.
  1. Allah (The Exalted) is free from body, place, time, resting, movement, appearance, and all bodily parts[7]. [xlv] 
  1. To believe for Allah (The Exalted) direction is Kufr, meaning to say Allah (The Exalted) is above[8] (Upar Wala) etc. [xlvi] 
  1. To prove a place for Allah (The Exalted) is Kufr. [xlvii] This is very common in people i.e. to say that Allah (The Exalted) is above (Upar Wala) is mostly taken from films and dramas. A very strong and reliable source says that from over 50 out of 100 Indian films, this is used and through this it has spread to people. People are not aware of words of Kufr, hence many have probably destroyed their faith. If anyone has used this/similar term, it is obligatory (Fardh) to repent, declare their faith again and if married renew your marriage. Only if people would stop watching films and dramas, and concentrate of learning the fundamentals of religion.
  1. The Giver of sustenance is sat up there, are words of Kufr.
  1. Anyone who acknowledges a body for Allah (The Exalted) is a Kafir. [xlviii] For more details read a simply written book called “Qawari ‘ul Qahhaar” by Ala Hazrat Imam Ahmad Raza Khan.
  1. Whoso says Allah (The Exalted) is sat or is standing up for justice, is a Kafir. [xlix]
  1. To say Allah (The Exalted) is above, you are below, are words of Kufr. [l]
  1. Whoso says Allah (The Exalted) is in the skies with the intention of place then this is Kufr and even without any intention it is Kufr. [li] These are even taught to children that Allah (The Exalted) is sat on the ‘Arsh or in the skies. Children are even asked questions, where is Allah (The Exalted)? They say, in the skies. Allah (The Exalted) save us.
  1. Allah (The Exalted) is on the ‘Arsh, in the skies, there is no place empty with Him, all these are statements of Kufr. [lii]
  1. To say “There is nothing nor place without the being of Allah (The Exalted) being present,” are words of Kufr. [liii]
  1. Whoso says Allah (The Exalted) is looking from the skies or the ‘Arsh, this statement is Kufr. [liv]
  1. It is said to someone Insha-Allah (Allah willing) you will do that, another said, I will do it without Insha-Allah, are words of Kufr. [lv]
  1. A person has oppressed another, the oppressed said, Allah (The Exalted) had destined this, the oppressor said, I do without Allah’s (The Exalted) destiny, this is Kufr. [lvi]
  1. To degrade the name of Allah (The Exalted) is Kufr, for instance if someone’s name is ‘Abdullah, ‘Abdul-Haq, ‘Abdur-Rahman then to place an Alif or any other letter at the end to degrade[9] is Kufr. [lvii] 
  1. Whoso calls the attributes of Allah (The Exalted) a creation or not eternal, is misguided, [lviii] a Kafir. [lix]
  1. ‘To find out the knowledge of the unseen is in Allah’s power whenever He wants He does this is specifically the status of Allah.’ In this statement the knowledge of Allah (The Exalted) is not recognised as necessarily always with Allah (The Exalted) and ignorance for Allah (The Exalted)  is possible. Because the person is saying that to find out the knowledge of unseen is in the power of Allah  (The Exalted) ‘if’ He wants He finds out other wise He remains ignorant from it,[10] this is clear Kufr. [lx]
  1. All of Allah’s (The Exalted) attributes are from the beginning and are not new or created, hence, whoso shows Allah (The Exalted) as a creation or non eternal or hesitates or has doubts, is a Kafir. [lxi]
  1. To believe that Allah (The Exalted) sleeps, gets drowsy, misguides and forgets is Kufr. [lxii]
  1. Whoso claims that in the world, one can really talk to Allah (The Exalted), is a Kafir. [lxiii]
  1. To say “Allah’s (The Exalted) knowledge is not eternal,” is a Kafir. [lxiv]
  1. Whoso believes anything in this world as eternal/always existed or has a doubt in anything that has not always existed, is a Kafir. [lxv]
  1. Whoso believes that Allah (The Exalted) has a father, wife, son is a Kafir and whoso says it is possible, is misguided. [lxvi]
  1. Living, power, hearing, seeing, speaking, knowledge, intention are all personal attributes of Allah (The Exalted), however, to hear with ears, see with eyes, speak with the tongue, are all parts and He is free from parts. [lxvii] To believe Allah (The Exalted) has a body[11] is Kufr. [lxviii] 
  1. If a person believes without Allah (The Exalted) giving, has knowledge of the unseen, is a Kafir. [lxix] If anyone believes without Allah (The Exalted) giving the knowledge of anything or has ownership is a Kafir. The Ahle Sunnah believes that whatever knowledge the Prophets’ and Awliya posses or other attributes are given by Allah (The Exalted). There are people who believe this as Shirk (polytheism) as if Allah’s (The Exalted) are not personal but given, this is when it will become shirk and it is this that is rejected and Kufr that Allah’s (The Exalted) attributes are given.
  1. To attribute ignorance, powerlessness or fault to Allah (The Exalted) is Kufr[12]. [lxx] 
  1. Someone saying/singing to his Lord for wealth, O Lord! Raise the roof off, shake Your pockets O Lord! [13]
  1. I will snatch it from Allah (The Exalted), are words of Kufr.
  1. Leave it out, I will personally settle this with Allah (The Exalted), are words of Kufr.
  1. Whoso says Allah (The Exalted) is pleased with Kufr, is a Kafir. [lxxi]
  1. Whoso says if on the day of judgement Allah (The Exalted) does justice then I will do justice, this is Kufr. [lxxii]
  1. If one says to his wife I like you more than Allah (The Exalted), is a Kafir. [lxxiii]
  1. To deny the knowledge of Allah (The Exalted) for one speck is Kufr. To deny non-existent knowledge is Kufr too.
  1. Whoso says Allah (The Exalted) does not know that which is non-existent, is a Kafir. [lxxiv]
  1. To say Allah (The Exalted) does not know and the angles are here to take the souls are words of Kufr. [lxxv]
  1. To say Qayyum (Existing), Quddus (Holy) Rahmaan (Merciful) and other names to other than Allah (The Exalted) that are specific to Him, some Scholars have written this as Kufr. [lxxvi] Hence, it is very important to abstain from this.[14]
  1. Whoso says, until I do not see Allah (The Exalted) and the Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) I will not bring Imaan (faith), is a Kafir. [lxxvii]
  1. To say Jay (victory) to the Gods of others’, is Kufr. [lxxviii] 
  1. I do not know Allah (The Exalted) and the Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), one who says this is a Kafir. [lxxix]
  1. To say that, Kufr is a means to reach Allah (The Exalted) is Kufr. [lxxx]
  1. Whoso says, I do not know Tawheed (Oneness of Allah) is a Kafir. [lxxxi]
  1. To show that one is care free from Allah (The Exalted) is Kufr, for instance, I don’t care about Allah (The Exalted), or I am not in need of the pleasure of Allah (The Exalted) or I do not care if Allah (The Exalted) is displeased with me, I want the pleasure of my beloved. These are from films and those people whose love is fake; it is obligatory (Fardh) to save oneself from this.
  1. It is said, do not eat too much, Allah (The Exalted) does not like (those) who over eat; another said, I will, if He wants to keep me His friend or enemy, this statement is Kufr. [lxxxii] This is the same ruling that would be given for those who reply to sleeping and laughing a lot. [lxxxiii]
  1. It is said, “Seek the pleasure of Allah (The Exalted)” another said, “I don’t want it,” to say this is Kufr.
  1. It is said, do not sin Allah (The Exalted) will punish, another said, I will grasp the punishment with one hand, one saying this is a Kafir. [lxxxiv] 
  1. Whoso says even if you were Allah (The Exalted) I will take my right, this statement is Kufr. [lxxxv]
  1. Whoso says I do not like the orders of Allah (The Exalted) and the Shari’ah of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) or it was said that, Allah (The Exalted) has made four wives permissible and said I don’t like this rule, then this statement is Kufr. [lxxxvi]
  1. Whoso says if Allah (The Exalted) gave me the order of ten Salaah I would not pray Salaah or if the Qibla was this direction I would not pray Salaah, such a person is a Kafir. [lxxxvii]
  1. It is said have shame before Allah (The Exalted), the person said no, this statement is Kufr. [lxxxviii]
  1. It is said “There will be a lot of luggage, hire a Taxi” he says, “Allah (The Exalted) is the King (Malik)” the other said, “Allah (The Exalted) is not the King do it yourself” and if a wife said to her husband, “Do such a thing for me” the husband said, “Allah (The Exalted) is the King (Malik),” the wife then said, “Allah (The Exalted) is not the King you will have to do it,” whoso says this is a Kafir.

 

Footnotes

[1] It is obligatory for each individual to learn about Allah (The Exalted) and His attributes. Refer to Aqidah Tahawiyya by Imam  Abu Ja’far At-Tahawi Hanafi or Bahar-e-Shariat part One.

[2] A sleeping tablet.

[3] A person’s name.

[4] FALSE BELIEF 1: Wahhabi/Deobandi beliefs regarding Allah: Allah Almighty can tell lies! Molvi Ismail Dehlavi who is one of the Deobandi scholars writes: “Allah can tell lies.” (Yak Roza Farsi, page 17-18). 

Molvi Khalil Ahmad Ambethvi Deobandi says that all previous Ulema were in debate of this fact that Allah can tell lies. He writes: “The question of lying (for Allah) has just not raised now but there has always been a debate on this issue by previous Ulema.” (Baraheen-e-Qati’a, p. 6). 

Molvi Mahmood Hasan Deobandi writes: “Allah has the power to do all bad things.” (Aljahdul Mikl, p. 41). 

Molvi Sanaullah Amritsari has written: “Allah Ta’ala may tell a lie, to say so is an act of faith.” (Akhbar-e-Ehl-e-Hadith Amritsari, p. 2). 

“Allah can speak lies”. (“Fatawa Rasheedia” by Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi).

CORRECT BELIEF 1: Lies is a defect which is not worthy of the Zaat (Being) of Almighty Allah and is totally Muhaal (Impossible) for Almighty Allah. Allah is free from all shortages and defects thus making lies Muhaal for Almighty Allah.  These corrupt beliefs will be dealt with in detail in the volume two.

[5] Hindu Festivals

[6] Name of Hindu God.

[7] FALSE BELIEF 2: “To say that Allah is free from place, space, direction and time, etc. is to be misled.” (“Izaahul Haq” by Ismaeel Dehlwi)

CORRECT BELIEF 2: Time and space have been created and will be eventually destroyed. Almighty Allah is Qadeem (Always Is and Always Will Be). If one accepts Allah (The Exalted) to be in a fixed place and in a fixed time zone, then one will have to accept, Ma’az-Allah, that Allah (The Exalted) is a creation and can be destroyed, whereas it is well known that, that which is Haadith (non-Eternal) and can be destroyed can never be Allah. The Being of Allah is Eternal and anything that is non-Eternal cannot be Allah. It is, thus, necessary to accept Almighty Allah to be free from time and place.

[8] FALSE BELIEF 3: This is a  Wahabi belief and the evidence for this claim is found in ibn Taymiyya’s suggestion that Allah (The Exalted) is a corporeal entity. This is to be found in his ‘al-Aqida al-hamawiyya,’ ‘al-Aqida al-wasitiyya,’ and ‘al-Tasis al-radd ala al-asas.’ Here and in other works he indicates that Allah’s “Hand,” “Foot,” “Shin,” and “Face” are literal attributes, and that He sits the Throne is person.

[9] For example: Haq-ya, Rahman-ya etc.

[10] FALSE BELIEF 4: Allah does not know beforehand what His creation would do. Allah comes to know of their doings only after they have done something. (Tafseer Bulghatul Hairaan, page 157/158)

CORRECT BELIEF 4: Nothing about them was hidden from Him before He created them, and He knew everything that they would do before He created them.

[11] See footnote for point No: 104.

[12] FALSE BELIEF 5: Molvi Mahmood Hasan Deobandi writes: “Allah has the power to do all bad things.” (Aljahdul Mikl, p. 41) 

[13]  In the custom of Indopak when someone gains a lot of wealth they say the roof has been raised off and when someone shakes his pockets what is in it falls out, the person saying this is speaking to Allah (The Exalted) saying give me so much that my roof is raised off and shake Your pocket that wealth falls upon us. This way of supplication is disrespectful therefore Kufr.

[14] People who have names that are specific to Allah (The Exalted) should be called with ‘Abdul then the name, for instance: ‘Abdul-Haq etc.

References

[i] SharahFiqh-e-Akbar. p. 255. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p.258. Fatwa-e-Bazaziya. Vol: 6. p. 323. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 461. Bahrur-Rahiq. Vol: 5. p. 202 etc.

[ii] Hamawi ‘Alal Ashba.

[iii] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6 p. 195

[iv] Bahar-e-Shari’ah. Part: 9. p. 169. Bahraur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 203. Khaniya. Vol: 3. p. 548. Tahtawi ‘Alal Dar. Vol: 2. p. 478. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Alamgiri. vol: 2. p. 259. Tatar Khaniya. vol: 5. p. 466

[v] Bahar-e-Shari’ah. Part: 9. p. 169. Alamgiri. vol: 2. p. 262.

[vi] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6 p. 210

[vii] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 278

[viii] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 319. Alamgiri. vol: 2. p. 262

[ix] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 320

[x] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 321. Bahar-e-Shari’ah. Part: 9. p. 176. Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 207. Fatwa-e-Khaniya. Vol: 3. p. 574. Majmu’a Anhae. Vol: 2. p. 512. Alamgiri. vol: 2. p. 275. Bazaziya. Vol: 6. p. 342

[xi] Bahar-e-Shari’ah. Part: 9. p. 170. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. vol: 2. p. 262. Tatar Khaniya. vol: 5. p. 472.

[xii] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 209. Fatwa-e-Bazaziy. Vol: 5. p. 325. Tatar Khaniya. vol: 5. p. 472

[xiii] Fatwa-e-Khaniya. vol: 3. p. 346. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 260. Tatar Khaniya. vol: 5. p. 466.

[xiv] Fatw-e-Amjadiya. Vol: 4. p. 432. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. vol: 2. p. 466.

[xv] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 202. Tahtawi ‘Alal Darj. Vol: 2. p. 478. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 504. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. vol: 2. p. 258. Fatwa-e- Tatar Khaniya. vol: 5. p. 462.

[xvi] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. vol: 2. p. 260. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. vol: 5. p. 476

[xvii] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. vol: 2. p. 262. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. vol: 5. p. 476

[xviii] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 283

[xix] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 313. Fatwa-e-Khaniya. vol: 3. p 571. Tahtawi ‘Alal Darj. Vol: 2. p. 479. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Fatwa-e- Tatar Khaniya. vol: 5. p. 470

[xx] Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. vol: 5. p. 471.

[xxi] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 327. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 476.

[xxii] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 315

[xxiii] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 209. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 281.

[xxiv] Bahar-e-Shari’ah. Part: 9. p. 173

[xxv] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 30. Shaami. Vol: 6. p. 378

[xxvi] Fatwa-e-Amjadiya. Vol 4. p 418

[xxvii] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 70.

[xxviii] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 118.

[xxix] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 132.

[xxx] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 194.

[xxxi] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 317

[xxxii] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 318

[xxxiii] Fatwa-e-Bazaziya. Vol: 6. p. 349

[xxxiv] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 320. Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 204. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 509. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 486

[xxxv] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 320. Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 204. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 509. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 486

[xxxvi] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 321. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 472.

[xxxvii] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 169. Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 204. Fatwa-e-Khaniya. Vol: 3. p. 574. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 263. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 485

[xxxviii] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259.

[xxxix] . Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 504. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 258. Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 113

[xl] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 169. Fatwa-e-Khaniya. Vol: 3. p. 575. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 258. Fatwa-e-Bazaziya. Vol: 6. p. 325. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 467

[xli] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 169. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 262. Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 206. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 472.

[xlii] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 298. Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 169. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 261. Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 203. Fatwa-e-Khaniya. p. 572,3,8. Tahtawi ‘Alal Dar. Vol: 2. p. 479. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Fatwa-e-Bazaziya. Vol: 6. p. 347. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 469.

[xliii] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 169. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259

[xliv] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 169. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 261. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 470.

[xlv] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 1. p. 8

[xlvi] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 203. Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 33. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 467.

[xlvii] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 169. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259. Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 202. Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 33. Fatwa-e-Khaniya. Vol: 3. p. 580. Tahtawi ‘Alal Dar. Vol: 2. p. 478. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 504. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 464.

[xlviii] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 14. p. 250.

[xlix] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 203. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 466.

[l] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 169. Fatwa-e-Khaniya. Vol: 3. p. 578. Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 33. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259.

[li] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 203. Tahtawi ‘Alal Dar. Vol: 2. p. 478. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 504. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 464.

[lii] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 33. Fatwa-e-Khaniya. Vol: 3. p. 578. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 424.

[liii] Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259. Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 123.

[liv] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 257. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 424.

[lv] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 170. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 261. Fatwa-e-Bazaziya. Vol: 6. p. 325.

[lvi] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 170. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 261. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 203. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Fatwa-e-Bazaziya. Vol: 6. p. 325. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 474.

[lvii] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 9. p. 170. Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 203. Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 310. Fatwa-e-Khaniya. Vol: 3. p. 576. Tahtawi ‘Alal Dar. Vol: 2. p. 479.  Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 262. Fatwa-e-Bazaziya. Vol: 6. p. 324. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 474.

[lviii] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 1. p. 4.

[lix] Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 462.

[lx] Al Kowkaba tush Shahabiyya.

[lxi] Al Kowkaba tush Shahabiyya.

[lxii] Al Kowkaba tush Shahabiyya.

[lxiii] Al Kowkaba tush Shahabiyya.

[lxiv] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 262.

[lxv] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 1. p. 4. Fatwa-e-Amjadiya. Vol: 4. p. 444

[lxvi] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 1. p. 4. Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 202. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 504. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 463.

[lxvii] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 1. p. 5. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 463.

[lxviii] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 1. p. 5.

[lxix] Bahar-e-Shariat. Vol: 1. p. 5.

[lxx] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 202. Fatwa-e-Khaniya. Vol: 3. p. 575. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 504. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 258. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 463.

[lxxi] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 203. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 256. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 465.

[lxxii] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 203. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 465.

[lxxiii] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 203. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 259. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 465.

[lxxiv] Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 203. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 262. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 472.

[lxxv] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 113.

[lxxvi] Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 505. Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 196.

[lxxvii] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 118.

[lxxviii] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 149.

[lxxix] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 153.

[lxxx] Fatwa-e-Razwiyya. Vol: 6. p. 195.

[lxxxi] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 257

[lxxxii] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 260

[lxxxiii] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 260

[lxxxiv] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 260

[lxxxv] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 260. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 468

[lxxxvi] Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 261.  Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 468

[lxxxvii] Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar. p. 283. Bahrur Raiq. Vol: 5. p. 204. Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 574. Majmu’a Anhar. Vol: 2. p. 508. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. Vol: 2. p. 269. . Fatwa-e-Bazaziya. Vol: 6. p. 327

[lxxxviii] Fatwa-e-Tatar Khaniya. Vol: 5. p. 574.